Data Model

A data model is a notation for describing data.

  • It makes sure that all applications see clean and organized data

It consists of 3 parts

  • Structure of Data
  • Operations on Data
  • Data Constraints

Structure of Data

  • conceptual model (schemata, etc)
  • how data should be physically organized? i.e. how is it allocated in memory
    • rows and columns?
    • nodes and edges?
    • key-value pairs?
    • sequences of bytes?

Operations on Data

  • what queries are efficiently supported by this organization and what are not?

It can be

  • some limited set of queries to retrieve and modify the data
  • limitation is needed to be able to describe operations at a high level

Questions to consider

  • how hard it is to update or add?
  • do I reorganize the data? how hard is it?


  • find the value of key $x$
  • find the rows where column "Lastname" is "Johnson"
  • get the next $N$ bytes

Data Constraints

Constraints express what are the legal structured we're allowed to create

For example

  • all rows must have the same number of columns
  • all values in a column must have the same type
  • a child can't have two parents



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