Document-Oriented Databases

A document-oriented database is a database designed for storing document-oriented information. Instead of records, as in traditional Relational Databases, these databases use structured and semi-structured documents. It may be XML, JSON or any other structured format.


The central abstraction of these databases is documents.

A document is

  • a self-contained record: it contains everything it needs (thus, no or little need for joining with other documents)
  • a semi-structured record: it is a set of values, each of which may be complex (i.e. hold other values)
  • a record with no imposed structure, other then the structure of the format (XML, JSON, etc) that is used to represent the record

Documents inside such databases are not rigid: there are usually no requirements to adhere to any schema, and records are not required to have same files.


  • there are ways to organize records into categories (like relations in Relational Databases)
  • typical way: add tags to mark the category of a record. A tag is usually just another field that specifies the type of a record
  • databases usually don't provide tools for categorizing, and it's up to users to decide whether to use tags or not

Document-Oriented Databases




XML Databases

Most XML databases are Document-Oriented


See also