Learn More, Study Less [1]

  • Ссылка на mindmap: [2]
  • Ссылка на конспект: [3]

Main concepts

Constructs

  • set of interlinked understandments
  • when building constructs, you need to create as many links as possible

Models

  • simplified contructs
  • compresses information
  • visualization

Highways

  • linking between isolated constructs
  • creativity, thinking "outside of the box"


Sequence of Learning

Acquire

  • information enters
    • reading
    • taking notes
    • personal exprerimes
  • goals
    • simplicity
      • lowest amount of redundancy
    • volume
      • the more the better
    • speed
      • works against simplicity and volume
  • Test: Have I seen this idea before?

Understand

  • comprehension
  • taking the raw information and giving it context
  • most basic interlinking
  • Test: Do I get what it means?

Explore

  • linking what you just learned to other concepts
  • forming models to simplify and expand your constructs
  • highways
  • making well defined constructs
  • types
    • Depth exploration
      • links into the information
      • where does it come from?
      • how it was made?
      • not just understand the formula - understand the proof
      • disadvantage: requires lots of researching
    • Lateral exploration
      • links around the information
      • What formulas are similar to?
      • What discoveries were made at the same time?
      • What other facts surrounding it?
      • requires less research but needs more creativity
    • Vertical exploration
      • finding patters
      • Can I compare it to a natural event?
  • Techniques
    • Metaphor
    • Visceralization
    • Diagramms
  • Test
    • Do I understand where it comes from?
    • What it's related to?
    • What outside ideas can be connected to?

Debug

  • looking for errors in models and highways
  • adding exceptions
  • finding faults and contradictions
  • how
    • seek information in other soursces
      • better in ones which oppose your views
    • testing it in the real world
  • the only way to debug - is to practice
  • Test
    • Have I removed bad links between the idea and other ideas?
    • Have I removed false conclusion?

Apply

  • how this operation operates in reality
  • here the learning becomes complete
  • Test: Have I used this idea in my practical life?

Test

  • continuous testing
  • all the steps to be accompanied by testing
  • allow to track your weaknesses
  • you can improve on them


Information Structure

Arbitrary

  • lots of facts, dates, definitions
  • have no logical (obvious) grouping
  • the hardest to remember
  • dealing
    • make it less arbitrary - find a pattern
    • linking
    • pedding
    • compression

Opinion

  • essays/presentations at school
  • look for patterns
  • dealing
    • speed reading
    • diagramming

Process

  • based on some background
  • eg
    • writing a program
    • builing a house
    • designing a protptype
  • practice is the most important element
  • dealing
    • visceralization
    • metaphor
    • diagramming
    • model debugging

Concrete

  • tangible
  • easy to visualize
  • have practical usage

Abstract

  • lacks the obvious connection to the real world
  • eg
    • Maths
    • Physics
    • CS
  • Complete opposite of Arbitrary
    • difficult to understand
    • patters are logical
  • dealing
    • Visceralization
    • metaphor


Techniques

Aquiring

Speed Reading

  • use a pointer
  • practice reading
  • measures
    • wpm - words per minute
    • comprehension
      • read for 3 minutes
      • write down every major idea/fact
        • without looking back at the book
      • go through it again and make a second list of ideas
      • c = (correct - incorrect) / (total number of facts)

Active reading

  • write heading and subheadings for the chapter
  • after each section make a few notes
    • major points
    • how can I remember them?
    • how I can extend and apply them?
  • forces you to create links
    • metaphor
    • visualization
  • makes you go beyond it and apply this in different context
  • so it forces you to move each major point through
    • understanding
    • exploring
    • application
  • example: classical conditioning
    • Major Points
      • discovered by Ivan Pavlov
      • connects a stimulus with a response
    • I remember it by
      • picturing Pavlov's dogs droding at the sound of bell
    • I extend it by
      • remembering how I feel compelled to answer the phone when hearing the same ringtone

Flow-Based Notetaking

  • goal - build a surface for connecting ideas as they're reaching you
  • uses fluid formar
  • major ideas are written in several words
    • not entire sentence
  • connect them using arrows
  • hybrids
    • Flow-Based Afternotes
      • take regular notes
      • afterwards reform them into flow-based
      • gives readability and understanding
      • but requires more time
    • Flow-Based Commenting
      • for dense information flow
      • writing down the key info
      • inserting notes when there's a break

Linking Ideas

Metaphor

  • for abstract
  • describing an object by linking it to smth irrelevant
  • bridge between familiar topic and unfamiliar
  • how
    • indentify the information
    • find smth in your experience that matches a part of this idea
      • couple of imperfect matches would do
    • repeat and check for circumstances where it doesn't applu
  • improve
    • ask yourself for a metaphor
    • pick the first thing that comes to mind
    • refine and test your metaphors
    • repeat
    • collect multiple metaphors that explore ideas from different angles

Visceralization

  • process of creating a mental image
  • connects ideas with emotions
  • works best for concrete information
  • experimental
  • how
    • identify the concept
    • pick a mental image to base this idea from
      • make a draft on paper
    • Static/Dynamic?
      • visualize it moving
    • add other sences
    • refine and repeat until you can bring it just in a few seconds of thinking

Diagramming

  • a simpler form of visceralization
  • a diagram - picture, connecting several ideas together
  • Flow-Based Diagrams
    • sequence of steps, events; a system
    • how
      • start with a single element
      • draw connection arrow to different ideas
      • for understanding - not for picture
        • less than 2 minutes!
  • Concept-Based Diagrams
    • start with the most important with branch off into details
  • Image Diagrams
    • not a diagram
    • rather a doodle
    • to represent idea, association to others
    • 10-20 seconds

Arbitrary

Linking

  • close to rote memorization
  • links a series like a linked list
  • Step1. Create you sequence
    • write it down
    • or beak it down into a sequence
  • Step2. Symbolize each in the list
    • create a symbol to associate with each element
      • a in a formula => apple
    • the symbol helps conjure the original concept
  • Step3. Create the links
    • vivid and exaggerating image that connects two adjacent items
    • banana and cow => big banana with cow spots
  • Imagination is needed!

Pegging

  • no need to be in sequence
  • link each element to a specific slot
    • 0 - hero
    • 1 - gun
    • 2 - shoe
    • 3 - tree
    • 4 - door
    • 5 - hive
    • 6 - sticks
    • 7 - heaven
    • 8 - plate
    • 9 - wine
    • 10 - pen
    • 11 - ribbon
    • 12 (dozen) - oven
    • note the rhyming
  • eg
    • a bottle of wine is fighting with a knige
    • a knife is a symbol of labor
    • the 9th principle is the division of labor

Information Compression

  • reduces size, so it can be associated together in a logical way
  • Mnemonics
    • storing several ideas together by using a phrase/word
    • RED (first aid)
      • R - Rest the injured area
      • E - Elevate the injured ared
      • D - apply the direct pressure
  • Picture linkung
    • link several ideas by representing them in one picture
    • done on paper
  • Notes compression
    • take a lot of information
    • reduce it to just a few pages of notes
    • organizes large amounts of data
    • easier to connect ideas by looking at the entire sctructure
    • how
      • take several sheets of paper
      • write down major ideas
      • next to it write relevant formulas/concepts etc
      • continue until you've written down all the major ideas
      • you may rewrite it for better organization

Extending

  • Practice
    • apply everything you learned in your life
    • if you don't know how - do brainstorm
  • Model Debugging
    • practice regularly
    • look for potential errors
    • make it timed
      • split practice into daily intervals
  • Project-Based Learning
    • have a 1-3 month project
    • it forces you to learn
    • keep it small
    • write it down
      • commit to your project on paper
    • set a goal
      • objective outcome

Final

Productivity Websites

  • ScottHYoung.com - My website devoted to productivity, learning and habits.
  • ZenHabits.net - Productivity through simplicity.
  • Lifehack.org - One of the largest productivity websites.
  • PickTheBrain.com - Productivity and motivation.
  • StudyHacks – Productivity for the student
  • StevePavlina.com – Personal development for smart people.

Productivity Books

  • Getting Things Done - The classic by David Allen.
  • The Power of Full Engagement - Energy management.
  • Zen To Done - A spin off of Getting Things Done, this one focuses on slowly building productive habits.
  • How to Be a Straight-A Student & How to Win at College – Both classic books that can help you become more productive and handle the challenges of learning. Definitely worth reading!
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