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ANOVA is ANalysis Of VAriance

- it's a set of statistical models
- they are used to analyze differences between group means and their associated procedures
- e.g. variation among and between groups

Goal: compare many means in a single hypothesis

- instead of doing pairwise $t$-test, do ANOVA
- but you can still perform $t$-test or Tukey HSD Test as post-ANOVA analysis
- also, a good way of checking independence between two variables: numerical and categorical

Some authors argue that the ANOVA step is in fact unnecessary and we could perform the Tukey HSD test alone. Nevertheless, the ANOVA + Tukey approach is considered standard is most books.

If not Normal, use these non-parametric tests

- Wilcoxon-Mann-Whiney Test if the class variable is binary
- Kruskal-Wallis Test for any nominal variable

- http://www.marketingdistillery.com/2014/08/10/multiple-abn-tests-in-marketing-with-anova-and-r/
- Book with chapters about ANOVA [1]
- http://www.personality-project.org/r/r.anova.html