GAV Mediation

There are two main approached for Mediating in Data Integration

  • GAV Mediation - defining global relations in terms of local
  • LAV Mediation - defining local relations in terms of global

GAV - Global-as-View Mediation

GAV Mapping

A GAV mapping is an expression of the form

  • $R(x_1, ..., x_n) \supseteq Q(x_1, ..., x_n)$
  • where $Q(x_1, ..., x_n)$ is a Conjunctive Query of the same arity as $R$
  • since $Q(x_1, ..., x_n) \leftarrow A_1(...), \ ..., \ A_k(...)$, can rewrite as $R(x_1, ..., x_n) \supseteq A_1(...), \ ..., \ A_k(...)$
  • so a mapping is some query over some source relations, also called a view

FOL Semantics of this mapping

  • $\forall \ x_1, ..., x_n \ \exists \ y_1, ..., y_m \ : \ A_1(...), \ ..., \ A_k(...) \Rightarrow R(x_1, ..., x_n)$
  • $x_1, ..., x_n$ - distinguished variables,
  • $y_1, ..., y_n$ - existential variables

GAV Mapping Example

Data sources:

  • S1.Catalogue(nomUniv, programme). - programs in French universities
  • S2.Erasmus(student, course, univ). - European Erasmus students
  • S3.CampusFr(student, program, university). - foreign students in France
  • S4.Mundus(program, course). - international master programs

Global Schema:

  • MasterStudent(studentName),
  • University(uniName),
  • MasterProgram(title),
  • MasterCourse(code),
  • EnrolledIn(studentName,title),
  • RegisteredTo(studentName, uniName).

The GAV mapping for the global schema is the following

  • MasterStudent(N) $\supseteq$ S2.Erasmus(N, C, U), S4.Mundus(P, C)
  • MasterStudent(N) $\supseteq$ S3.CampusFr(N, P, U), S4.Mundus(P, C)
  • University(U) $\supseteq$ S1.Catalogue(U, P)
  • University(U) $\supseteq$ S2.Erasmus(N, C, U)
  • University(U) $\supseteq$ S3.CampusFr(N, P, U)
  • MasterProgram(T) $\supseteq$ S4.Mundus(T, C)
  • MasterCourse(C) $\supseteq$ S4.Mundus(T, C)
  • EnrolledIn(N, T) $\supseteq$ S2.Erasmus(N, C, U), S4.Mundus(T, C)
  • EnrolledIn(N, T) $\supseteq$ S3.CampusFr(N, T, U), S4.Mundus(T, C)
  • RegisteredTo(N, U) $\supseteq$ S3.CampusFr(N, T, U)
  • left side: global; right side: local

Query Answering

To evaluate a query

  • for answering some query against the global schema, need to find the relevant data sources
  • then we issue queries for each data source and combine the result

GAV Unfolding (informal)

  • for each atom $A_i(...)$ of the query
  • if this atom can be matched to a head of some mapping $R_j(...)$
  • replace the atom $A_i(...)$ by the body of the mapping $R_j(...)$


Illustration by example

  • Consider this query:
  • $Q(x) \leftarrow \underbrace{\text{RegistersTo}(s, x)}_\text{(1)}, \underbrace{\text{MasterStudent}(s)}_\text{(2)}$
  • for $\text{(1)}$, one mapping can be found, for $\text{(2)}$ - two mappings
  • so we can have two unfoldings:
    • $Q_1(x) \leftarrow S_3.\text{CampusFr}(s,v_1,x), S_2.\text{Erasmus}(s,v_2,v_3), S_4.\text{Mundus}(v_4,v_2)$
    • $Q_2(x) \leftarrow S_3.\text{CampusFr}(s,v_5,x), S_3.\text{CampusFr}(s,v_6,v_7), S_4.\text{Mundus}(v_6,v_8)$
  • note that $Q_2$ can be simplified (by removing a redundant join)
    • so we have the following two rewritings:
    • $R_1(x) \leftarrow S_3.\text{CampusFr}(s,v_1,x), S_2.\text{Erasmus}(s,v_2,v_3), S_4.\text{Mundus}(v_4,v_2)$
    • $R_2(x) \leftarrow S_3.\text{CampusFr}(s,v_6,v_7), S_4.\text{Mundus}(v_6,v_8)$
  • the final result: $R_1(x) \cup R_2(x)$

GAV Unfolding

def: GAV Query unfolding (or GAV rewriting)

  • let $Q(\vec{x}) \leftarrow G_1(\vec{z}_1), \ ..., \ G_n(\vec{z}_n)$ be a query over global schema
  • $\forall \ G_i \ \exists$ GAV mapping $G_i \supseteq q_i(\vec{x}_i, \vec{y}_i)$
    • where in $q_i(\vec{x}, \vec{y})$: $\vec{x}$ - distinguished variables, $\vec{y}$ - existential
  • an unfolding of $Q(\vec{x})$ is a query $U$ that is obtained by
  • replacing each conjunct $G_i(\vec{z}_i)$ by $q_i \big( \Psi_i(\vec{x}, \vec{y}) \big)$
  • $\Psi_i(\vec{x}, \vec{y})$ maps
    • variables $\vec{x}$ of $q_i$ to $\vec{z}$ and
    • existential variables $\vec{y}$ to some new variables (needed to avoid naming conflicts - and therefore unnecessary constraints)


  • each unfolding then simplified (redundant joins/conjuncts are removed)
  • and obtain rewritings

Main Limitations of GAV Mediation

  • Adding and removing data sources is costly
    • it may require revising all the mappings
  • for Web, servers may come and go
  • so another approach is needed
  • thus, for Semantic Web, LAV Mediation is more preferred

See Also


  • Web Data Management book [1]