Descriptive statistics - how to summarize data with numbers or plots

- Simple summaries - Summary Statistics
- Exploratory Analysis - mostly visual analysis - simple-to-understand graphs.

Univariate analysis is describing the distribution of a single variable

- central tendency (e.g. the mean, median, and mode)
- dispersion, e.g.
- the range and quantiles of the data set
- measures of spread variance and standard deviation

- the shape of the distribution
- as skewness and kurtosis.
- graphical or tabular format, including histograms and stem-and-leaf display.

Descriptive statistics may be used to describe the relationship between pairs of variables

In this case, descriptive statistics include:

- Cross-Tabulations and Contingency Tables
- Graphical representation via Scatter Plots and other Plots
- Quantitative measures of dependence
- Descriptions of conditional distributions